Part-I Union and Territories (1-4)
What is in Article 1?
India is a union of states, that is, its states can never be separated.
Note – The countries which are federation. Its states can be broken like – Soviet Union USA
What is in Article 2?
Parliament can merge any foreign state into India by giving prior notice to the President.
Ex- merger of Sikkim with India on 16 May 1975
What is in Article 3?
Parliament can change the name and boundary of any existing state by giving prior notice to the President.
E.g. Bihar to Jharkhand, Orissa to Odisha
What is in Article 4?
The amendment made in Articles 2 and 3 has been kept outside Article 368. That is, the President cannot stop this amendment.
History of Indian States
At the time of independence, India was divided into more than 552 princely states (states). The British gave them the right that these states can be found in India. Or can be found in Pakistan. Or as an independent country. Sardar Patel and KK Menon did the work of merging these princely states into India, they merged all the states into India – but three states were not ready for merger.
(1) Jammu and Kashmir – it wants to become an independent country, the state here was Hari Singh and his prime minister was Sheikh Abdullah, meanwhile infiltration started in Kashmir on Pakistan’s gesture, after which on 26 October 1947, Kashmir became a part of India by signing the Instrument of Accession. Gaya.
(ii) Junagadh – It was a princely state of Gujarat which wanted to go to Pakistan, but Sardar Patel merged it with India after conducting a referendum.
(ii) Hyderabad – The Nizam of Hyderabad wanted Hyderabad to be merged with Pakistan. But Sardar Patel sent the army in police uniform, which was called Operation Polo, under which Hyderabad was merged with India.
One India was formed by merging all these princely states. This India was divided into 4 states A, B, C, D.
SK Ghar Commission was constituted in 1949 for the formation of states on linguistic basis, but it opposed the formation of states on linguistic basis.
Demanding for a separate state for the Telugu language, the gourmet Shri Ramal sat on a hunger strike. And it died after 56 days of hunger strike, as a result the public’s opposition increased. As a result, on 10 October 1953, Nehru separated Andhra Pradesh, a separate state for the Telugu language, eventually becoming the first state to be formed on the basis of language.
Fazal Ali Commission was constituted in 1953 for the formation of states on linguistic basis, it gave its report in 1956 and gave legal recognition to the states on linguistic basis. As a result of this commission, the lost constitutional amendment was passed in 1956, after which 14 states and 6 union territories were created on linguistic basis by canceling A, B, C, D.
Note: The state of Punjab was reorganized on the recommendation of the Sah Commission.